Kalookan | Philippines

Caloocan (Filipino: Kalookan) is the fourth most populous city in the Philippines. It is divided into two geographical locations with a total combined area of 5,333.40 hectares. It was formerly part of the Province of Rizal of the Philippines' Southern Luzon Region. According to the 2015 census, it had a population of 1,583,978. The city's name is colloquially spelled as Kalookan. It comprises what is known as the CAMANAVA area along with cities Malabon, Navotas and Valenzuela.

The word caloocan comes from the Tagalog root word lo-ok; kalook-lookan (or kaloob-looban) means "innermost area". South Caloocan is bordered by Manila, Quezon City, Malabon, Navotas and Valenzuela. North Caloocan shares its border with Quezon City, Valenzuela and Marilao, Meycauayan and San Jose del Monte in the province of Bulacan.

Caloocan once encompassed a much bigger area without being bisected into north and south. The districts of Balintawak, La Loma and Novaliches were once part of Caloocan. Balintawak is a historic district because it was the original site of the "Cry of Pugad Lawin" (Unang Sigaw sa Balintawak) at a location called "Kang-kong" near Tandang Sora's house. Novaliches was an expansive sector with some hillsides that served as meeting places and hideouts for Andrés Bonifacio and the Katipunan.

By the 1920s, the consolidation of several municipalities, Caloocan had annexed the neighbouring town of Novaliches, as stated in the Act 942, as amended by Acts 984 and 1008 of the Philippine Commission, bringing its total area to about 15,000 hectares extended to the foothills of Marikina, San Mateo and Montalban in the east; Tinajeros, Tanza and Tala rivers in the North; San Francisco del Monte, Sampalok, Sta. Cruz and Tondo in the south; and Dagat-Dagatan or Aromahan in the west.

When Quezon City was created in 1939, 1,500 hectares of land from Caloocan, the following barrios or sitios: Balintawak, Balingasa, Kaingin, Kangkong, La Loma, Malamig, Matalahib, Masambong, Galas, San Isidro, San Jose, Santol and Tatalon, was to be given to the new capital city. Instead of opposing it, Caloocan residents willingly gave land to Quezon City in the belief it will benefit the country's new capital.

The city also has a number of shopping malls and stand-alone supermarkets and hypermarkets including the former Ever Gotesco Grand Central (and future SM City Grand Central), Puregold Maypajo,Monumento and Caloocan, Victory Central Mall, Puregold Monumento, Araneta Square, Uniwide Warehouse Club Monumento, SM Hypermarket Monumento, and SM Center Sangandaan which are in Monumento area in the south. Savemore Market Kiko Camarin and iMall Camarin in Barangay 178 (Kiko Camarin), Zabarte Town Center, Savemore Market Zabarte, and Puregold Zabarte, are shopping malls in Barangay 175 Camarin area at the north. Puregold Deparo, which is opened last November 2015, and Ultra Mega Supermarket Deparo are stand-alone supermarkets at Barangay 168 Deparo which serves the residents of Deparo and the nearby barangays of Bagumbong and Llano.

The city's most celebrated landmark is the monument to the revolutionary Andrés Bonifacio, which stands on a roundabout at the northern terminus of EDSA. The memorial was erected in 1933, and consists of an obelisk with sculptures by National Artist Guillermo Tolentino. The monument marks the very first battle of the Philippine Revolution on 3 August 1896.

Recent renovations have been made on the environs of the monument, including the Bonifacio Circle, its former site, and the Caloocan stretch of EDSA, which is 100 metres away from the landmark. The whole area is known as 'Monumento'.

City hall stands along A. Mabini Avenue in the southern part of the city, across the street from San Roque Parish Cathedral. The old city hall stands today at A. Mabini Street, 10th Avenue. There is a city hall in the northern part of the city. The city's District Office of the Bureau of Internal Revenue is along EDSA.

There are also several public and private schools such as Caloocan National Science and Technology High School (North Caloocan's first-ever science and technology high school; its students are admitted if they pass a competitive examination), Immaculada Concepcion College, Caloocan City Science High School, Caloocan City Business High School, Caloocan High School, Amparo High School, Maria Clara High School, Notre Dame of Greater Manila, Bagumbong High School (Main and Annex), Camarin High School, Tala High School, Manuel Luis Quezon High School, Sampaguita High School, Cielito Zamora High School, Bagong Silang High School, National Housing Corporation High School (NHC HS), Kalayaan National High School, Deparo High School, Escuela de Sophia of Caloocan, Inc., Guardian Angel School, Holy Infant Montessori Center, Saint Benedict School of Novaliches, Saint Dominic Savio School of Caloocan City, Saint Andrew School MHANLE Inc., Philippine Cultural College (Annex), Northern Rizal Yorklin School, Systems Plus Computer College, St. Mary's Academy of Caloocan City, St. Gabriel Academy, Asian Institute of Computer Studies - Caloocan, St. Clare College of Caloocan, Mystical Rose School of Caloocan, Holy Angel School of Caloocan Inc. , St. Agnes Academy of Caloocan Inc., St. Therese of Rose School, Young Achievers School of Caloocan, St. Joseph College of Novaliches, St. Raphaela Mary School of Caloocan, Our Lady of Lourdes Catholic School, Maranatha Christian Academy of Caloocan (Camarin), Kasarinlan High School, Camarin Elementary School and the two campuses of La Consolacion College (one is in Novaliches in the northern part and the other is on the southern part, near city hall).

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